Diabetes (medically referred to as diabetes mellitus) is a group of metabolic diseases that causes a person to have very high blood sugar. This may be caused because the cells do not respond to , or because the pancreas does not produce enough hormones to handle the sugar in the blood stream. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 DM and Type 2 DM. Type 1 results from the body’s failure to produce hormone from the pancreas, while Type 2 occurs from resistance in the cells. There is a third type, called gestational diabetes, which occurs when a pregnant woman who does not have a prior diagnosis of diabetes develops a high blood glucose level. This usually resolves after delivery. Since manufactured versions of pancreatic hormone became available in 1921, all forms of diabetes have been treatable, although both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are chronic conditions that cannot be cured.
The typical symptoms of diabetes that is left untreated are increased thirst (polydipsia), frequent urination (polyuria), increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. These symptoms may develop quickly (in months or even weeks) in Type 1 diabetes, but develop much more slowly in Type 2 diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes tend to feel very tired and suffer from severe weight loss despite maintaining a normal or even excessive appetite. People with Type 2 diabetes tend to have a persistent thirst, may suffer from blurred vision, feel fatigued and have to urinate frequently. Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease, and can lead to kidney failure and blindness in adults. People with diabetes may also have to undergo foot amputations later in life because of circulatory problems. The American Diabetes Association provides more information about diabetes, its symptoms, and how to control them.
Type 1 diabetes is what is known as an autoimmune disorder. It is widely accepted that a combination of certain factors and genetic predisposition provoke the immune system into attacking and killing certain cells that are located within a pancreas. There is a different causes for type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a body showing an increased hormone resistance. This means the body cannot use the hormones it produces properly, no matter how much is made. This means glucose is unable to be transferred from blood into a person’s cells. In turn, this excess sugar in the blood will damage and poison the pancreas over time. In turn, this means it will produce lower levels of hormones, which makes it even more difficult to make sure the blood glucose stays under control. Genetic factors also play a role in causing Type 2 diabetes, as does obesity. Other risk factors include being over the age of 40, high blood pressure, HIV infection, high cholesterol, blood vessel disease, the use of certain medications, and mental health disorders.
There are a number of ways you can help reduce the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes. One way is to get more physically active. There are numerous benefits to regular physical activity, and exercise can help you lower your blood sugar and lose weight while boosting your sensitivity to pancreatic hormones. This ensures your blood sugar stays within a normal range. Both resistance training and aerobic exercise can help control diabetes. You also want to make sure you get plenty of fiber in your diet. This lowers your risk of heart disease and improves your blood sugar control. It also makes you feel full, encouraging weight loss. Whole grains help maintain blood sugar levels and have been known to reduce the risk of diabetes. It is also important to lose any extra weight you may have. According to a recent study, overweight adults can reduce their diabetes risk by 16% for every 2.2 pounds they lose.
The major goal behind treating diabetes is to minimize the elevation of blood sugar, while still maintaining necessary levels of blood sugar in the body. Type 1 diabetes is treated with exercise, hormone injections, and a specific diabetic diet.
Type 2 diabetes is treated by having the patient lose weight, a specific exercise program, and a diabetic diet. Medications are extremely effective at treating diabetes, reducing the long-term effects of the condition, and controlling symptoms.